Indian Journal of PsychiatryIndian Journal of Psychiatry
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   1993| January-March  | Volume 35 | Issue 1  
    Online since February 20, 2009

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Incidence of Schizophrenia in an Urban Community in Madras
S Rajkumar, R Padmavathi, R Thara, Sarada M Menon
January-March 1993, 35(1):18-21
The incidence rate of an illness is a vital epidemiological measure for investigating etiology. Incidence estimates of schizophrenia from different parts of the world have shown variations, due to differences in the diagnostic criteria, measurement techniques and operational definitions used. In contrast to the prevalence studies in India, incidence surveys haw been sparse and the rates obtained relatively higher as compared to the west. As part of an ICMR Longitudinal Study of Functional Psychoses in an urban community in Madras, the incidence of schizophrenia was estimated in the slums. The case finding methods included a door to door survey and a leakage study. Cases defined using standardized diagnostic criteria, were identified using IPSS and PSE. The incidence rate was 0.21/1,000 by the community survey and 0.41/1,000 by the leakage study. This paper describes the study and discusses its relevance in India.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  766 134 -
An Incidence Study of Schizophrenia in India
NN Wig, Vijoy K Varma, S.K K Mattoo, PB Behere, HR Phookan, AK Misra, R Srinivasa Murthy, BM Tripathi, DK Menon, SK Khandelawal, H Bedi
January-March 1993, 35(1):11-17
Under a WHO collaborative study, the Chandigarh center monitored two geographically defined populations over a 2-year period. Using helping-agency-coverage and other methods along with a set of specified criteria, 268 first-onset potentially schizophrenic cases were actively identified. Of these, 232 cases could be assessed in detail which included 2W schizophrenics as per specified ICD-9 or Catego criteria. The annual incidence rates obtained were 4.4 and 3.8 per 10,000 for rural and urban areas, respectively. The rural cohort had a higher incidence for each of the three diagnostic definitions. In the urban cohort, sex and diagnostic definition did not affect the incidence. In the rural cohort, females had a lower incidence for Catego S+ and a higher incidence for other diagnostic definitions.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  687 154 -
Nature and Course of Disability in Schizophrenia
R Thara, S Rajkumar
January-March 1993, 35(1):33-35
Sixty eight Feighner positive schizophrenic patients were followed up prospectively for a period of six years using standardized instruments. Disability was assessed in this sample using the Schedule for the Assessment of Psychiatric Disability at the end of 4, 5 and 6 years of follow up. It was found that the three year course of disability tended to be stable and fluctuations were minimal. Disability did not seem to be related to relapses. The implications of these findings in planning intervention programs for chronic schizophrenic patients are discussed.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  584 190 -
Visual Information Processing Deficits in Clinically Remitted Outpatient Schizophrenics
CV Ananthanarayanan, N Janakiramaiah, BN Gangadhar Vittals, C Andade, V Kumaraiah
January-March 1993, 35(1):27-30
Twenty four remitted schizophrenics and twenty four neurotic depressives were studied on three measures of visual information processing, viz., simple reaction time, choice reaction time, and a forced choice span of apprehension test. The groups were matched for age, sex, and educational status. The remitted schizophrenics performed poorly on these measures compared to neurotic depressives. The findings suggest that information processing deficits are present in outpatient schizophrenics even during clinical remission.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  702 58 -
A Phenomenological Study of Delusions in Depression
KN Rao, Shamshad Begum
January-March 1993, 35(1):40-42
Eighteen percent of Major Depressive cases attending a general hospital had delusions. There were 10 types of delusions and delusions of persecution occurred most frequently (67.5%), with persecution involving either the patients themselves or people close to them occurring in 50% each. The majority of patients considered the persecution to be unjustified and reacted by taking precautions, pleading for help and protection. Delusions of reference were the next in frequency. Hypochondriacal, guilt and nihilistic delusions which are considered classical in depression were relatively uncommon. The delusions had a temporal relationship with depression, were unstable and rapidly responded to treatment.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  651 86 -
Australia Antigen (HBsAG) in Institutionalised Schizophrenics
S Chaudhury, S Chandra, GS Chopra, M Augustine
January-March 1993, 35(1):31-32
In a study of sixty institutionalist Schizophrenic patients, sixty chronic schizophrenic outpatients and an equal number of age and sex matched normal controls from the same regional background, the prevalence of HBsAG was six, one and zero respectively. Institutionalized schizophrenic patients are a high risk group for hepatitis B virus infection.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  680 43 -
A Study on Emotional Aspects of Spinal Cord Injury
N.M M Rath, S Bag, Sarojini P Dash
January-March 1993, 35(1):51-53
Spinal Cord Injury, as an illness, is catastrophic, chronic and at times terminal, leading to overwhelming psycho-social decompensation. One is concerned with physical realities, pain, paralysis, and impotency as well as with tasks and goals in patients' life. A study of psychological consequences and mental morbidity was observed in twenty persons affected with spinal cord injury over three months to twelve years. Eight of twenty patients presented with neurotic disorders, five with intense depression, four with depersonalization, and four with paranoid states in various phases. Impaired social adjustment was observed in five patients. Like the fabulous 'Phoenix' rising out of its own ashes, three patients turned supportive to others in similar situations transcending emotional, physical and social disability.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  652 66 -
Cognitive Functioning in Patients with Complex Absence Following Treatment with Sodium Valproate
Shobini L Rao, P Satischandra, Gourie M Devi
January-March 1993, 35(1):54-57
The association of sodium valproate with cognitive functions was studied in 29 patients with complex absence seizures. Seventeen patients were on monotherapy and twelve on polypharmacy with sodium valproate. Cognitive functions assessed were attention, speech, visuo-speciat perception, memory and intelligence. Behavioral disturbances were also assessed. Two assessments were made six months apart; in the first assessment, attention and speech were adequate, while memory, visuo-spatial perception, and behavioral functioning were impaired. Intelligence was lower in the polypharmacy group, while other functions were similar. In the second assessment, intelligence and visual memory improved in the monotherapy group, while no changes were present in the polypharmacy group.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  640 73 -
Age Estimation in the Elderly : Relevance to Geriatric Research in Developing Countries
TN Srinivasan, TR Suresh, S Rajkumar
January-March 1993, 35(1):58-59
The accurate estimation of age is an important area in geriatric research. The lack of suitable records in developing countries coupled with illiteracy makes this process difficult. Fifty patients were studied in order to assess their age by means of a checklist which contained significant personal and historical events. The average patient was found to under-report his age by three years.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  615 78 -
"Incomplete Koro"- A Forerunner for Mood Disorder : Two Case Reports
Saji S Damodaran, Haque S Nizamie
January-March 1993, 35(1):60-62
Koro was initially reported as a culture-bound psychiatric syndrome confined to South-east Asian cultures. Later on, isolated cases of Koro have been reported from non-Chinese cultures also. Incomplete Koro syndrome or a 'Koro-like state' is usually grafted on to a primary psychiatric disorder. The association of Koro with depression is rare and this paper reports two cases of mood disorder presenting with Koro symptoms. Recurrence of Koro symptoms in the depressive phase and its disappearance during the period of mania has not been reported. The initial anxiety associated with Koro might result into major depression. It is proposed that a Koro-like state may be a non-specific epiphenomenon that vanishes with recovery of depression.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  604 82 -
An Exploratory Study of Coping Styles in Schizophrenic Patients
R Raguram
January-March 1993, 35(1):22-26
The coping strategies employed by thirty schizophrenics were examined in relation to their psychopathology. A total of 251 coping styles were identified in the patient group. The commonly used techniques were behavioral control, cognitive methods and socialization. These findings suggest that schizophrenic patients employ active methods to handle the distressing symptoms experienced by them. The coping patterns were then studied in relation to specific symptoms. Schizophrenics with predominant thought disorder utilized specific task oriented methods in addition to a wide variety of cognitive approaches; those with delusions minimized their socialization and shifted their attention away from distressing thoughts and patients with hallucinations employed distraction techniques and increased their socialization. In contrast, those with non-psychotic symptoms resorted to more direct help from outside. The common method employed by patients in relation to both psychotic and neurotic symptoms was one of indulgence, usually excessive coffee consumption or smoking. The findings are discussed in relation to their practical applications and suggestions for future studies are outlined.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  587 94 -
Psychiatric Disorders in Non - Ulcer Dyspepsia
John P Alexander, BV Tantry, G Giridhar Reddy, SS Raju
January-March 1993, 35(1):48-50
Systematic studies of psychiatric disorders in non -ulcer dyspepsia are rare. The aim of the present study was to find out the nature and prevalence of psychiatric morbidity in non-ulcer dyspepsia. Thirty three patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia and thirty with duodenal ulcer were assessed for psychiatric morbidity with the help of the regular version of the SADS, and diagnosed according to DSM-IIIR criteria. Non-ulcer dyspepsia was defined precisely and investigators who made the psychiatric diagnosis were blind to the gastroenterological diagnosis. In the non-ulcer dyspepsia group, 69.7% of patients had psychiatric morbidity, compared to 26.7% in the ulcer group. The difference between the two groups in the frequency of psychiatric morbidity was statistically significant. Dysthymic disorder (39.4%) was the most frequent psychiatric disorder in the non-ulcer dyspepsia group.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  603 74 -
Depression and Guilt in Indian and North American Patients : A Comparative Study
Jambur Ananth, Frank Engelsman, AM Ghadirian, Marcy Wohl, Padmini Shamasundara, HS Narayanan
January-March 1993, 35(1):36-39
One hundred and nineteen Indian and one hundred and fourteen North American depressed patients were compared to assess the differences in psychopathology. The study revealed two important findings: 1) Indian patients scored significantly higher than American patients on the HAMD items of poor appetite, hypochondriasis, diurnal variation, and psychomotor retardation; and lower on the items of anxiety and middle insomnia. 2) Guilt was expressed less often by Indian patients. Guilt was more common among those who felt that God was responsible for their depression and in those who believed in reincarnation. These differences may be related to cultural factors and not to religious beliefs.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  598 74 -
Abuse of Boot Polish by Ingestion : A Case Report
Anil K Nigam, RP Srivastava, BS Chavan, Shekhar Saxena
January-March 1993, 35(1):63-64
This case report describes the abuse of boot polish by inhalation and ingestion in a 32 year old patient who also had alcohol dependence. Pleasurable psychological effects, craving, active search for the substance and tolerance were present but withdrawal symptoms could not be demonstrated because of simultaneous alcohol dependence.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  565 85 -
Seizure Duration and Related Issues in ECT for Endogenous Depression
Chittaranjan Andrade
January-March 1993, 35(1):43-47
In a study comparing sinusoidal wave and brief-pulse ECT in endogenous depression, seizure duration was monitored by the cuff method in 29 patients over 180 treatment sessions. Mean seizure duration across all treatments was 26.5 sees, and the mean for individual patients across their ECT course ranged from a minimum of 15.7 sees to maximum of38.5 sees. Regression analysis found no variable which significantly predicted mean seizure duration. Of the 22 good responders in the study, response to ECT was associated with a mean seizure duration of sees in 1 patient, ando cs in 11 patients; as just 2 of 7poor responders to ECT had a mean seizure duration of <20 sees in 1 patients, <25 sees in 11 patients, of the 22 good responders in the study; as just 2 of 7 poor responders to ECT had a mean seizure duration of< 25 sees, it appears that a cuff seizure duration of over 20 sees may suffice for the seizure to be therapeutic in depression. With (constant current) brief pulse ECT, seizure threshold significantly increased with successive ECTs; thresholds did not however differ between the good and poor responders. There was a trend for seizure duration to decrease over time; again, good and poor responders did not differ. These findings provide little support for the anticonvulsant hypothesis for the antidepressant effect of ECT, but support the literature that ECT exerts an anticonvulsant effect.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  575 72 -
Presidential Address Women and Mental Health
SC Malik
January-March 1993, 35(1):3-10
Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  448 161 -
New Strides in Schizophrenia Research
K Kuruvilla
January-March 1993, 35(1):1-2
Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  323 63 -
Editors Report for the Year 1992
AK Agarwal
January-March 1993, 35(1):65-67
Full text not available  [PDF]
  332 40 -
Instructions to Contributors

January-March 1993, 35(1):69-70
Full text not available  [PDF]
  264 39 -
News & Notes

January-March 1993, 35(1):68-68
Full text not available  [PDF]
  262 37 -
1993 Subject Index Author - Indian Journal Of Psychiatry

January-March 1993, 35(1):1-6
Full text not available  [PDF]
  257 40 -
Office Bearers

January-March 1993, 35(1):7-7
Full text not available  [PDF]
  212 34 -
General Secretary's Report for the Year 1992
Shiv Gautam
January-March 1993, 35(1):66-67
Full text not available  [PDF]
  195 20 -
Treasurer's Report for the Year 1992
GR Golechha
January-March 1993, 35(1):65-66
Full text not available  [PDF]
  189 16 -
Main Features Of The Research Instruments

January-March 1993, 35(1):17-17
Full text not available  [PDF]
  137 32 -