Indian Journal of PsychiatryIndian Journal of Psychiatry
Home | About us | Current Issue | Archives | Ahead of Print | Submission | Instructions | Subscribe | Advertise | Contact | Login 
    Users online: 176 Small font sizeDefault font sizeIncrease font size Print this article Email this article Bookmark this page
Search Again
 Table of Contents
 Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
 Citation Manager
 Article Access Statistics
 Reader Comments
 Email Alert
 Add to My List
 * Requires registration (Free)

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded324    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 3    

Recommend this journal

Year : 2020  |  Volume : 62  |  Issue : 9  |  Page : 470-475

Assessment of anxiety and depression symptoms in the Albanian general population during the outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic

1 Neuroscience Department, Psychiatric Emergency Unit, University Health Clinic “Mother Teresa”, Tirane, Albania
2 Student, Faculty of General Medicine, University of Medicine, Tirane, Albania
3 Neuroscience Department, Psychiatry Unit, University Health Clinic “Mother Teresa”, Tirane, Albania

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Fatime Elezi
Manastiri Congress Street, University Health Clinic “Mother Teresa”, Psychiatric Hospital “Xhavit Gjata,” Tirane
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/psychiatry.IndianJPsychiatry_842_20

Rights and Permissions

Background: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the Albanian authorities declared mandatory stay-at-home measures, closing businesses, schools, and public places. This study aims to investigate the impact of these immediate changes on the mental well-being of the population. Methodology: Respondents (N = 1678) aged 18–60 years were selected through a convenient sampling method. A questionnaire was administered online for 26 days, where respondents reported the time spent daily in the COVID-19 topic and filled in their generalities, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7. Results: Findings suggest a significant negative correlation between age and anxiety scoring (r(n=1678)= −0.121, P≤ 0.001) and between age and depression scoring (r(n=1678)= −0.232, P≤ 0.001), shown also on the ANOVA test for age and anxiety (F = 6.019, P ≤ 0.05), where younger populations had higher anxiety levels, as well as age and depression (F = 20.326, P ≤ 0.05), where older populations had higher levels of depression. Differences on the level of education resulted in a lower score of anxiety and depression (F = 3.524, P≤ 0.05; F = 7.739, P≤ 0.05, respectively) on respondents with higher education. Those who found themselves jobless from the pandemic scored higher on anxiety and depression (F = 9.760, P≤ 0.05; M = 6.21, ds = 4.686 and F = 16.051, P≤ 0.05; M = 8.18, ds = 5.791, respectively) compared with those who are still working. Significant differences were found on the ANOVA test related to different amounts of time spent daily on the COVID-19 topic for anxiety and depression (F = 25.736, P≤ 0.001; F = 5.936, P≤ 0.003, respectively), with people who spend <1 h scoring higher on depression (M = 7.57, ds = 5.849) and those who spent >3 h scoring higher on anxiety (M = 6.76, ds = 5.60). On the t-test, people on a romantic relationship scored lower levels of depression (t = −4.053, P≤ 0.0001) compared to single individuals, and females scored higher levels of anxiety (t = 12.344, P≤ 0.001) compared to males. Conclusions: Younger participants score higher levels of anxiety and depression. Higher education individuals show lower levels of anxiety and depression. Having a job translates into lower levels of anxiety and depression. People who spent more time on the COVID-19 topic daily have higher levels of anxiety, whereas those who spent less time have higher levels of depression. Being in a romantic relationship relates to lower levels of depression. Females report higher levels of anxiety compared to males.



Print this article         Email this article