Indian Journal of PsychiatryIndian Journal of Psychiatry
Home | About us | Current Issue | Archives | Ahead of Print | Submission | Instructions | Subscribe | Advertise | Contact | Login 
    Users online: 169 Small font sizeDefault font sizeIncrease font size Print this article Email this article Bookmark this page


    Advanced search

    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

    Materials and Me...
    Article Figures
    Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded20    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal


 Table of Contents    
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 62  |  Issue : 5  |  Page : 531-539
Prevalence and correlates of bullying perpetration and victimization among school-going adolescents in Chandigarh, North India

1 Department of Community Medicine and School of Public Health, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India
2 Department of Paediatrics, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India
3 Department of Psychiatry, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India

Click here for correspondence address and email

Date of Submission24-Jul-2019
Date of Decision25-Mar-2020
Date of Acceptance10-Jun-2020
Date of Web Publication10-Oct-2020


Objectives: Bullying among adolescents is one of the important but neglected health concerns, especially in low- and middle-income countries. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence and correlates of bullying among Indian adolescents.
Study Design: This was a cross-sectional study.
Materials and Methods: The prevalence of self-reported involvement in any kind of bullying was assessed among sixth to tenth class students (n = 667, mean age 13 years), across government (n = 359) and private (n = 308) schools using Olweus Bully-Victim Questionnaire in Chandigarh, a North Indian union territory. Self-esteem and emotional and behavioral difficulties of the participants were measured by using standard Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, respectively. Multinomial logistic regression was done to determine the predictors of bullying.
Results: Prevalence of any kind of bullying was 25.6% (16% victimization, 5.2% perpetration, and 4.3% being bully-victim). Verbal bullying was the most common (55.1%), followed by physical (32.7%) and relational (25.2%) bullying. The prevalence of cyberbullying was 2.7%. Around 44% of students reported that adults in school never did anything to stop bullying. Bully-victims had the highest mean difficulty score (16.07). Significant predictors of bullying were being male (odds ratio [OR] = 2.5 [1.5–4.2], P < 0.001); studying in government school (OR = 0.63 [0.41–0.99], P = 0.048); having abnormal emotions (OR = 2.24 [1.1–4.7], P = 0.035); and poor peer relations (OR = 2.77 [1.44–5.35], P = 0.002).
Conclusions: One in four adolescents experience some form of bullying in schools in a North Indian city. Bullying perpetration and victimization is associated with gender, type of school, and abnormal difficulties (emotional and behavioral problems).

Keywords: Adolescents, bullying, perpetration, school going, victimization

How to cite this article:
Rana M, Gupta M, Malhi P, Grover S, Kaur M. Prevalence and correlates of bullying perpetration and victimization among school-going adolescents in Chandigarh, North India. Indian J Psychiatry 2020;62:531-9

How to cite this URL:
Rana M, Gupta M, Malhi P, Grover S, Kaur M. Prevalence and correlates of bullying perpetration and victimization among school-going adolescents in Chandigarh, North India. Indian J Psychiatry [serial online] 2020 [cited 2020 Oct 24];62:531-9. Available from:

   Introduction Top

Bullying is a significant public health problem among adolescents, and it may have harmful consequences such as depression, anxiety, delinquency, and suicides. To achieve the United Nation's sustainable development goal three and four of ensuring good health and well-being at all ages including adolescents, and providing quality education, respectively, it is important to measure the burden and correlates of bullying, which is a form of school violence and has detrimental effects on the health of adolescents and their academic performance.[1],[2] Olweus described bullying as a behavior in which the intention is to inflict injury or discomfort upon another individual who has difficulty in defending himself or herself. Bullying has three main criteria: bully's intention is to harm victim; bullying behavior is repetitive; and there is an imbalance of power between bully and victim.[3]

The prevalence of bullying victimization was assessed in 66 countries across North America, Europe, and Israel in a multicountry study. The prevalence of bullying in that study was reported as low as 7% to as high as 70%, which indicates large variations in its prevalence among students.[4] Modecki et al. conducted a meta-analysis of eighty international studies and reported that the prevalence of bullying perpetration worldwide is 34.5% and of victimization is 36%.[5] A review of bullying studies from South East Asian countries reported that the prevalence of bullying was either comparable or higher than that of Western countries, which can be attributed to factors such as educational or cultural, but methodological issues cannot be ignored such as criteria or definition used to describe the term bullying.[6]

The existing literature on the correlates of bullying have shown that the students involved in bullying have higher risk of suicidal ideation and attempts,[7] carry weapon in school, and indulge in physical fights and getting hurt.[8] Students who are victimized are also more likely to be depressed and suffer from anxiety, low self-esteem, and dropout from school.[9],[10] In spite of the fact that bullying has serious mental health effects that can last up to adulthood,[11] this problem has not been given the required attention, especially, in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) where focus from several decades is on reproductive and sexual health of adolescents.[12]

There is limited research on bullying in South East Asian region and in particular from India. Studies evaluating bullying in India are more important because the education system comprises of memorizing long lessons and stressful examinations. This puts students with additional mental stress, anxiety, and frustration, which is a precipitator of bullying.[13] In the 21st century, India has witnessed increase in globalization and increase of media in our daily lives.[14] Compared to any age group, adolescents are more exposed to globalization effects, i.e., they are influenced by different types of media such as movies, music videos, and Internet.[15] Many such media promote violence, and it increases the likelihood of adolescents to get involved in bullying as victim, perpetrator, or bystander.[16] Social inequality is another factor whose linkage to bullying is a proven fact. Students from countries with large socioeconomic disparities are more at risk of bullying.[17] Keeping in mind that India has large socioeconomic inequalities, it is important to understand the status of bullying in Indian schools.

With this background, the aim of the present study is to estimate the prevalence and to determine the correlates of bullying behaviors (victimization, perpetration, and bully-victims) among school children studying in grades sixth to tenth.

   Materials and Methods Top

Study design and setting

A cross-sectional study was conducted to obtain self-reported data on bullying. The study was conducted in private and government schools across Chandigarh, a North Indian union territory.

Study population

Boys and girls studying in classes from sixth to tenth grade were included in the cross-sectional study. Adolescents' indulgence in problem behaviors usually starts at around 12–15 years of age, hence this is the target group of this study.[18]

Sample size

A sample size of 654 was calculated based on expected proportion of children who were involved in bullying others to be 13%, significance level of 5%, power of 80%, nonresponse rate of 10%, and clustering effect of 1.78. The clustering effect is statistically defined as 1 + (m − 1) p, where m is the number of units in a cluster (students within a section of a class) and p is intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and is multiplied to the final sample size.[19] On the basis of prior research, the expected ICC is 0.02 for both victimization and perpetration of bullying.[20] On an average, the number of students in a class was assumed to be approximately 40, thus leading to clustering effect of 1.78. In a school-based study, for sample size calculation, clustering effect has to be taken into account, as the assumption in such studies is that the data within cluster, i.e., classes or schools, are more similar than that between clusters.

Sampling technique

A two-stage cluster sampling technique was used to first select the study schools in government (n = 5) and private school (n = 5) categories by simple random sampling technique using computer-generated random numbers to have equal representation from both the types of the schools. According to the data from the Chandigarh Education Department, one section of a given class comprised of approximately forty students. Hence, to achieve the sample size, two sections per class per school were needed to be selected. As there were five classes from sixth to tenth, hence one class (having at least two sections) per each government and private school was selected. In the second stage, one class and two sections of this class were randomly selected in each selected government and private school, in such a way that all the classes are included in the sample. All the students were included in the study from the selected sections.

Data collection methods and questionnaire

Data were collected anonymously through self- administration of the following study instruments in the class room.

Interview schedule

The information on age, gender (boy or girl), grade (sixth to tenth), type of school (government or private), type of locality (urban, rural, or slum), religion (Hinduism, Islam, Sikhism, and Christianity), category (general or schedule caste/tribe or other backward classes), and living arrangement (nuclear family or joint family) was collected by using a pretested background interview schedule.

Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire

Information on bullying was obtained by using the revised version of Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire.[21] Previous studies have reported good reliability and validity of this questionnaire.[22],[23] The bullying questionnaires provided the respondents with a definition of bullying and investigated how often they were involved in bullying in the past 6 months. The participants were later categorized into one of the four bullying subgroups according to their frequency of responses with bullying:

  1. Not involved participants: Defined as who had not been bullied/bullied others or involved “only once or twice”
  2. Victim: Categorized as who had been bullied “2 or 3 times a month” or more
  3. Bully: Categorized who bullied other “2 or 3 times a month” or more
  4. Bully-victim: Involved in bullying others and had been bullied “2 or 3 times a month” or more.

School culture was assessed using three questions from the Olweus Bully-Victim Questionnaire. The first question was “How do you usually react if you see or understand that a student your age is being bullied by other students?”. The second question was “How often do the teachers or other adults at school try to put a stop to it when a student is being bullied at school?”. Another question included to measure the culture of bullying in school was “Overall how much do you think your class teachers have done to counteract bullying since school started?”.

Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale

This scale was used to assess self-esteem.[24] This scale generally has a high reliability, and has been validated in India.[25] This is a 10-item scale, and each of these items is scored on a 4-point scale. The resultant score can range from 0 to 30. Students having scores >15 are categorized into high (score >15) and those with scores ≤15 into having low self-esteem.

Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire

The youth self-reported measure (11–17 years) of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ),[26] was used to assess emotional and behavioral difficulties. It is a validated tool with good psychometric properties and is available in English as well as Hindi version.[27] There are 25 items in SDQ, which comprises of five subscales including, emotional problems scale, conduct problems scale, hyperactivity scale, peer problems scale, and pro-social scale.

Both Olweus Bully-Victim Questionnaire and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Questionnaire were translated and re-translated in Hindi language, according to WHO methodology,[28] and finalized after discussion with the experts from the field of psychiatry, pediatrics, and community medicine.

Data analysis

Data were entered into Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) (Version 16.0. Chicago, SPSS Inc ), which was used for all statistical purposes. Proportion of adolescents involved in bullying (victims, bullies, and bully-victims) was calculated. Chi-square test was used to compare the differences in the proportions between different groups.

Based on the findings of bivariate analysis, factors found to be significantly associated with the bullying status were analyzed further in multinomial logistic regression. Multinomial logistic regression was carried out to determine the predictors associated with involvement in any form of bullying (victims, bullies, and bully-victims). Adjusted odds ratio was estimated and considered significant at 95% levels. The dependent variable was any bullying including being a victim, bully, or a bully-victim, and not involved students were the reference category. The independent variables or predictors were type of school, gender, liking for school, number of friends, emotional problems, conduct problems, and peer relation problems.

Institute's ethics committee had approved the study. Permission from Director Higher Education and principals of respective schools was obtained. Student's assent and parental consent was obtained prior to participation in the study.

   Results Top

A total of 689 students studying in classes sixth to tenth had filled the Olweus Bully-Victim, Strengths and Difficulties, and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Questionnaire. However, 22 students (3.2%) were excluded from the study because of nonresponse to bullying victimization and perpetration-related questions. Hence, data were analyzed for 667 students (53.8% from government and 46.2% from private schools) students.

The background characteristics of the students in government and private schools are given in [Table 1]. The mean age of the students was 13.02 years (standard deviation = 1.6). The mean age was significantly higher in government (13.2) as compared to private schools (12.8) (P < 0.001). Significantly higher proportion of government school students belonged to nuclear family (P = 0.016), had four or more friends (P = 0.029), and had liked the school (P = 0.012) as compared to the private school students.
Table 1: Background characteristics of the study participants from government and private schools, Chandigarh

Click here to view

Prevalence of bullying

Overall, the prevalence of any bullying behavior was 25.6%, victimization was 16%, only bullying was 5.2%, and bullying and victimization was 4.3%. The prevalence of bullying behavior was significantly higher in private schools (any 33%, victims 18.5%, bullies 7.5%, and bully-victims 7.1%) as compared to the government schools (any 19.2%, victims 13.9%, bullies 3.3%, and bully victim 1.9%) (P < 0.001). Victimization was more prevalent in the seventh (19.7%) and ninth grades (19.8%). The prevalence of cyberbullying was 2.7%. Boys (31.5%) were significantly more involved in any form of bullying as compared with girls (16.3%) (P < 0.001) [Table 2].
Table 2: Prevalence of bullying as per sociodemographic variables

Click here to view

Ways of being bullied

Majority of the students who were victimized were bullied verbally (55.1%), followed by physical bullying (32.7%) and bullying by spreading rumors (25.2%). Bullying by giving comments on caste, bullying by sexual comments or gestures, damaging property or forcibly taking money, and exclusion from group were reported by 24.3%, 22.4%, 18.7%, and 17.8% students, respectively. When the bullying was stratified by gender, verbal bullying was statistically significantly more prevalent in girls (66.7%) than boys (51.3%), whereas physical bullying was more prevalent in boys (37.5%) than girls (18.5%) (P = 0.03) [Figure 1].
Figure 1: Ways of being bullied among boys and girls in school, as per victims (n = 107)

Click here to view

Culture of bullying in school

The culture of bullying in school was assessed by asking whether adults in schools did anything to stop bullying. Around 44% of the students reported that adults in school almost never did anything to stop bullying, followed by 30.6% of students who reported once in a while or sometimes and 25.2% of students reported “often” or “almost always.” Students were also asked whether their class teacher did anything to counteract bullying incident in class, for which around 49% of students reported “nothing or little,” followed by 42.4% of students who reported “good deal or much,” and around 9% of students reported “somewhat.” Another aspect of culture of bullying in school was the bystander behavior, i.e., students' own response to peer's bullying incidents. Majority (59.1%) of the students (n = 394) felt sorry for the student who was bullied and 24% of the students tried to help the victim.

Correlates of bullying

When the association of bullying and strength and difficulties was evaluated, the proportion of students having abnormal total difficulties was statistically significantly higher (P < 0.001) among victims (26.1%) followed by bully-victims (12.5%) and bullied (11.4%) [Table 3].
Table 3: Prevalence of bullying as per mental health variables

Click here to view

Male gender (victims: odds ratio [OR] = 2.53, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.54–4.2; P < 0.001 and bullies: OR = 4.24; 95% CI: 1.67–10.75; P = 0.002), having emotional problems (victims: OR = 2.24; 95% CI: 1.1–4.7; P = 0.035 and bully victims: OR = 4.36; 95% CI = 1.48–12.86; P = 0.008), peer relation problems (victims: OR = 2.77; 95% CI: 1.44–5.35; P = 0.002), and abnormal conduct problem (bully: OR = 2.58; 95% CI: 1.04–6.42; P = 0.042) were significant predictors of prevalence of bullying (being a victim, bully, or a bully victim, respectively), as per multinomial logistic regression. Studying in government school was a protective factor for being a victim (OR = 0.63; 95% CI: 0.41–0.99; P = 0.048), bully (OR = 0.37; 95% CI = 0.17–0.79, P = 0.01), and bully victim (OR = 0.22, 95% CI: 0.09–0.54; P = 0.001). Having four or more friend was also a significant protective factor for being a bully victim (OR = 0.33; 95% CI: 0.13–0.83; P = 0.019) [Table 4].
Table 4: Multinomial logistic regression showing predictors of bullying (victim, bully, or bully-victim)

Click here to view

The total difficulty score was statistically significantly associated with bullying status when adjusted for gender, number of good friends, liking for school, and type of school. Abnormal difficulty score was statistically significantly associated with being a victim (OR = 3.29, 95% CI: 1.82–5.96; P < 0.001), bully (OR = 4.67; 95% CI: 1.99–10.96; P < 0.001), or bully-victim (OR = 10.25; 95% CI: 3.99–26.36; P < 0.001).

   Discussion Top

A cross-sectional study was used to estimate the prevalence of self-reported involvement in any kind of bullying among sixth to tenth grade students. The prevalence of any kind of bullying was 25.6%, victimization was 16%, perpetration was 5.2%, and bully-victim was 4.3%. Half of the students who were victimized were bullied by mean names, teasing, or passing hurtful comments. Boys had significantly higher risk of being a victim or bully as compared with the girls.

The prevalence of any kind of bullying reported in the present study was 25.6%, which is within the range reported in the European countries (9% in Sweden to 54% in Lithuania).[29] A recent meta-analysis reported a mean prevalence rate of 35% for bullying involvement, across eighty worldwide studies.[5] Prevalence reported in other high-income countries (Australia: victims: 18%; bullies: 3%; and bully-victims: 5%; the USA: victims: 8.4%; bullies: 8.2%, and bully-victims: 3.7%; and North America: victims: 16.7%; bullies: 15.1%, and bully-victims: 6.8%)[28-30] is also comparable to the prevalence observed in the present study. There is a huge variation in the prevalence of bullying in LMICs (from as low as 8% in Tajikistan to as high as 70% in Zambia).[30] The prevalence rates obtained in the present study are much higher than that reported in a study from Guangdong province in China (victims: 4.8%; bullies: 7.1%, and bully-victims: 2.6%) in school-aged youth.[31] Nguyen et al. reported the prevalence and correlates of victimization among low-resource countries; the highest prevalence of victimization was reported from Peru (61.5%) followed by India (56.4%), Vietnam (38.6%), and Ethiopia (27.4%).[32] Skrzypiec et al. reported the following prevalence rates of victimization: the Philippines: 37.1%; Indonesia: 21.2%; and Taiwan: 5.4%.[33]

One of the most important factors for variability in bullying prevalence, highlighted by cross-country studies, is the difference in socioeconomic and cultural factors, across different countries.[32],[33],[34] In an earlier study from Chandigarh, the prevalence of any type of bullying was reported to be higher (any bullying 53%, victimization 19.2%, perpetration 13%, and bully-victim: 20.7%) as compared to this study.[35] The reason could be attributed to the fact that in the present study, the definition of bullying according to the Olweus was provided to the students, which could also result in the difference of rates in both the studies. Valliancourt et al. (2008) reported that when participants were given the definition of bullying, the prevalence of victimization reported was less, hence accounting for the less prevalence in the present study in comparison to Malhi et al.[35],[36]

Verbal bullying was the most common form of bullying (55.1%), which is also in line with the existing literature. In a study done among US adolescent students, it was reported that verbal bullying was the most common way through which students were victimized (53.8%) followed by social bullying (51.4%) and physical bullying (20.8%).[37] A similar study done in the Greater Beirut area has also reported that verbal bullying (12.48%) was the most common form of victimization. Khamis reported that boys were bullied more physically (boys vs. girls: 3.3% vs. 0.8%), whereas girls used relational form of victimization (boys vs. girls: 5.9% vs. 6.3%), which are similar to the findings of the present study.[38] Wang et al. reported similar results; boys (9.9%) reported more physical victimization than girls (5.5%), whereas girls (27.6%) reported more of relational victimization than boys (20.7%).[37]

The results of this study show that there is a culture of bullying in Indian schools, as teachers or adults in school did nothing to counteract bullying, which is consistent with the findings of the previous studies.[39],[40] A positive culture of bullying in school encourages bullies to victimize more as they will think that no action will be taken against them and will also discourage victims to report to adults in the school.

In the present study, being in government (public) school was significantly protective for bullying, which is similar to the results reported from a recent study done in Brazil (2015), which reported that bullying victimization was more likely to be reported in the private schools than public schools (OR = 1.17; 95% CI: 1.04–1.31).[40] A possible explanation could be that in government schools, a homogenous group of students study, i.e., almost all come from socioeconomically weaker sections of the society, so there are fewer chances of bullying, whereas in private schools, there will be a mixed population from both lower and higher socioeconomical groups. This difference of status may contribute to economically weaker students to be a target of victimization. In a meta-analysis, it was also reported that victims (OR = 1.40; 95% CI: 1.36, 1.74) and bully-victims (OR = 1.54; 95% CI = 1.36, 1.74) were more likely to come from the low socioeconomic background.[41]

The results of the present study have shown that significantly more boys (19.5%) were engaged in bullying victimization and perpetration as compared with girls (10.5%). Similar results were obtained in a cross-country study across forty countries (bullying was higher in boys, which ranged from 8.6% to 45.2%, and the range for girls varied from 4.8% to 35.8%,[29] in Beijing, China (victimization was reported to be more in males [23%] than females [17%]);[42] and in India (boys were twice as likely as girls to bully and 2.25 timely to be classified as bully-victims).[35] Smith et al. reviewed gender differences in bullying and reported that due to more risk-taking behavior among boys and increased empathy in girls, boys are more involved in bullying than girls.[43]

The results of a multinomial regression analysis of the present study showed that victimization was significantly associated with abnormal emotional problems and abnormal peer relation problems. These findings are similar to the earlier studies that reported higher emotional problems, i.e., depression and loneliness, among victims.[44],[45],[46] Previous research has consistently reported significant association of being a bully and externalizing problems such as aggressiveness and conduct problems,[47],[48] similar to the findings of the present study. In line with the existing literature, the present study also reported the highest mean score for bully-victims and significant association with emotional problems.[35],[46],[48]

The limitation of the study is that it is a cross-sectional study, and it limits the ability to make causal associations. All the data collected for the study were through self-administered questionnaire. The disadvantage of using self-administered questionnaire is that students may find difficulty in understanding the meaning of some questions. To tackle this limitation, the authors had explained all the questions to the participants one by one before administering the questionnaire.

   Conclusion Top

The findings of the present study clearly indicate that bullying perpetration and victimization is widespread among school-going adolescents. One in four adolescents were involved in some kind of bullying, leading to adverse psychosocial outcomes. The findings of this study might be useful for the school administrators, policymakers, public health experts, and mental health professionals to understand the problem of bullying and associated psychosocial problems among school-going adolescents. Bullying interventions which aim to improve self-esteem and provide youth with skills to respond effectively to bullying, will help in reducing psychosocial distress that bullied students suffer in school. Whole school-based intervention programs involving school administrators, teachers, parents, and students are recommended to deal with this issue on a sustainable basis. The present study reinforces the need for promotion of a zero tolerance policy toward bullying in Indian schools.


The authors would like to thank Director of Public Instructions, Education Department, Chandigarh, to allow us to carry out this study in the schools.

Financial support and sponsorship

This work was supported by the Indian Council of Medical Research: Junior Research fellowship grant to undergo PhD program of the first author.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

   References Top

Srabstein JC, Leventhal BL. Prevention of bullying-related morbidity and mortality: A call for public health policies. Bull World Health Organ 2010;88:403.  Back to cited text no. 1
Hertz MF, Donato I, Wright J. Bullying and suicide: A public health approach. J Adolesc Health 2013;53:S1-3.  Back to cited text no. 2
Olweus D. Bullying at School: What we Know and What We Can Do. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing; 1993.  Back to cited text no. 3
Due P, Holstein BE, Soc MS. Bullying victimization among 13 to 15-year-old school children: Results from two comparative studies in 66 countries and regions. Int J Adolesc Med Health 2008;20:209-21.  Back to cited text no. 4
Modecki KL, Minchin J, Harbaugh AG, Guerra NG, Runions KC. Bullying prevalence across contexts: A meta-analysis measuring cyber and traditional bullying. J Adolesc Health 2014;55:602-11.  Back to cited text no. 5
Sittichai R, Smith PK. Bullying in South-East Asian Countries: A review. Aggress Violent Behav 2015;23:22-35.  Back to cited text no. 6
Espelage DL, Holt MK. Suicidal ideation and school bullying experiences after controlling for depression and delinquency. J Adolesc Health 2013;53:S27-31.  Back to cited text no. 7
Nansel TR, Overpeck MD, Haynie DL, Ruan WJ, Scheidt PC. Relationships between bullying and violence among US youth. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2003;157:348-53.  Back to cited text no. 8
Kowalski RM, Limber SP. Psychological, physical, and academic correlates of cyberbullying and traditional bullying. J Adolesc Health 2013;53:S13-20.  Back to cited text no. 9
Rivers I, Noret N. Potential suicide ideation and its association with observing bullying at school. J Adolesc Health 2013;53:S32-6.  Back to cited text no. 10
Lereya ST, Copeland WE, Costello EJ, Wolke D. Adult mental health consequences of peer bullying and maltreatment in childhood: Two cohorts in two countries. Lancet Psychiatry 2015;2:524-31.  Back to cited text no. 11
Patton GC, Sawyer SM, Santelli JS, Ross DA, Afifi R, Allen NB, et al. Our future: A Lancet commission on adolescent health and wellbeing. Lancet 2016;387:2423-78.  Back to cited text no. 12
Deb S, Strodl E, Sun J. Academic stress, parental pressure, anxiety and mental health among Indian high school students. Int J Psychol Behav Sci 2015;5:26-34.  Back to cited text no. 13
Ray M, Jat KR. Effect of electronic media on children. Indian Pediatr 2010;47:561-8.  Back to cited text no. 14
Ford-Jones A, Nieman P. Impact of media use on children and youth. Paediatr Child Health 2003;8:301-17.  Back to cited text no. 15
Brown P, Tierney C. Media role in violence and the dynamics of bullying. Pediatr Rev 2011;32:453-4.  Back to cited text no. 16
Due P, Merlo J, Harel-Fisch Y, Damsgaard MT, Holstein BE, Hetland J, et al. Socioeconomic inequality in exposure to bullying during adolescence: A comparative, cross-sectional, multilevel study in 35 countries. Am J Public Health 2009;99:907-14.  Back to cited text no. 17
Blum RW, Bastos FI, Kabiru CW, Le LC. Adolescent health in the 21st century. Lancet 2012;379:1567-8.  Back to cited text no. 18
Hemming K, Girling AJ, Sitch AJ, Marsh J, Lilford RJ. Sample size calculations for cluster randomised controlled trials with a fixed number of clusters. BMC Med Res Methodol 2011;11:102.  Back to cited text no. 19
Kärnä A, Voeten M, Little TD, Poskiparta E, Kaljonen A, Salmivalli C. A large-scale evaluation of the KiVa antibullying program: Grades 4-6. Child Dev 2011;82:311-30.  Back to cited text no. 20
Olweus D. The Revised Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire. Bergen, Norway: Research Center for Health Promotion; 1996.  Back to cited text no. 21
Solberg ME, Olweus D. Prevalence estimation of school bullying with the olweus bully/victim questionnaire. Aggress Behav 2003;29:239-68.  Back to cited text no. 22
Kyriakides L, Kaloyirou C, Lindsay G. An analysis of the revised Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire using the Rasch measurement model. Br J Educ Psychol 2006;76:781-801.  Back to cited text no. 23
Rosenberg, M. Society and the adolescent self-image. Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale. New York. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. 1965.  Back to cited text no. 24
Schmitt DP, Allik J. Simultaneous administration of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale in 53 nations: Exploring the universal and culture-specific features of global self-esteem. J Pers Soc Psychol 2005;89:623-42.  Back to cited text no. 25
Goodman R. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: A research note. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 1997;38:581-6.  Back to cited text no. 26
Goodman R. Psychometric properties of the strengths and difficulties questionnaire. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2001;40:1337-45.  Back to cited text no. 27
World Health Organization. Process of Translation and Adaptation of Instruments. World Health Organization; 2014. p. 4-7. Available from: http://wwwWhoInt/Substance_Abuse/Research_Tools/Translation/En/. [Last accessed on 2017 Nov 30].  Back to cited text no. 28
Craig W, Harel-Fisch Y, Fogel-Grinvald H, Dostaler S, Hetland J, Simons-Morton B, et al. A cross-national profile of bullying and victimization among adolescents in 40 countries. Int J Public Health 2009;54 Suppl 2:216-24.  Back to cited text no. 29
Fleming LC, Jacobsen KH. Bullying among middle-school students in low and middle income countries. Health Promot Int 2010;25:73-84.  Back to cited text no. 30
Wu J, He Y, Lu C, Deng X, Gao X, Guo L, et al. Bullying behaviors among Chinese school-aged youth: A prevalence and correlates study in Guangdong Province. Psychiatry Res 2015;225:716-22.  Back to cited text no. 31
Nguyen AJ, Bradshaw C, Townsend L, Bass J. Prevalence and correlates of bullying victimization in four low-resource countries. J Interpers Violence 2017. doi:10.1177/0886260517709799.  Back to cited text no. 32
Skrzypiec G, Alinsug E, Amri U, Andreou E, Brighi A, Didaskalou E, et al. Self-reported harm of adolescent peer aggression in three world regions. Child Abuse Negl 2018;85:101-17. [doi: 10.1016/j.chiabu. 2018.07.030].  Back to cited text no. 33
Chen LM, Cheng YY. Prevalence of school bullying among secondary students in Taiwan: Measurements with and without a specific definition of bullying. Sch Psychol Int 2013;34:707-20.  Back to cited text no. 34
Malhi P, Bharti B, Sidhu M. Aggression in schools: Psychosocial outcomes of bullying among Indian adolescents. Indian J Pediatr 2014;81:1171-6.  Back to cited text no. 35
Vaillancourt T, Mcdougall P, Hymel S, Krygsman A, Miller J, Stiver K, et al. Bullying: Are researchers and children/youth talking about the same thing? Int J Behav Dev 2008;32:486-95.  Back to cited text no. 36
Wang J, Iannotti RJ, Nansel TR. School bullying among adolescents in the United States: Physical, verbal, relational, and cyber. J Adolesc Health 2009;45:368-75.  Back to cited text no. 37
Khamis V. Bullying among school-age children in the greater Beirut area: Risk and protective factors. Child Abuse Negl 2015;39:137-46.  Back to cited text no. 38
Unnever J, Cornell D. The culture of bullying in middle school. J Sch Violence 2003;2:5-27.  Back to cited text no. 39
Azeredo CM, Levy RB, Araya R, Menezes PR. Individual and contextual factors associated with verbal bullying among Brazilian adolescents. BMC Pediatr 2015;15:49.  Back to cited text no. 40
Tippett N, Wolke D. Socioeconomic status and bullying: A meta-analysis. Am J Public Health 2014;104:e48-59.  Back to cited text no. 41
Hazemba A, Siziya S, Muula AS, Rudatsikira E. Prevalence and correlates of being bullied among in-school adolescents in Beijing: Results from the 2003 Beijing Global School-Based Health Survey. Ann Gen Psychiatry 2008;7:6.  Back to cited text no. 42
Smith PK, López-Castro L, Robinson S, Gorzig A. Consistency of gender differences in bullying in cross-cultural surveys. Aggress Violent Behav 2018.  Back to cited text no. 43
Cook CR, Williams KR, Guerra NG, Kim TE, Sadek S. Predictors of bullying and victimization in childhood and adolescence: A meta-analytic investigation. Sch Psychol Quarterly 2010;25:65-83.  Back to cited text no. 44
Arseneault L, Bowes L, Shakoor S. Bullying victimization in youths and mental health problems: 'Much ado about nothing'? Psychol Med 2010;40:717-29.  Back to cited text no. 45
Eslea M, Menesini E, Morita Y, O'Moore M, Mora-Merchán JA, Pereira B, et al. Friendship and loneliness among bullies and victims: Data from seven countries. Aggress Behav 2004;30:71-83.  Back to cited text no. 46
Kelly EV, Newton NC, Stapinski LA, Slade T, Barrett EL, Conrod PJ, et al. Suicidality, internalizing problems and externalizing problems among adolescent bullies, victims and bully-victims. Prev Med 2015;73:100-5.  Back to cited text no. 47
Álvarez-García D, García T, Núñez JC. Predictors of school bullying perpetration in adolescence: A systematic review. Aggress Violent Behav 2015;23:126-36.  Back to cited text no. 48

Correspondence Address:
Madhu Gupta
Department of Community Medicine and School of Public Health, Room No. 130, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/psychiatry.IndianJPsychiatry_444_19

Rights and Permissions


  [Figure 1]

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]